The places where we live, work, learn and play affect our health. Examples throughout this brief show that communities often are separated by a distance of a few miles, but they can be worlds apart in terms of upstream health factors that result in downstream health outcomes, such as poor quality of life and premature mortality. The more that is known about these places, the better hospitals, clinicians and community-based partners can identify and address the influence of these factors on health.
Social Determinants of Health
The places where we live, work, learn, and play are bridges to our health.
Social determinants of health include factors like socioeconomic status, education, neighborhood, and physical environment, employment, and social support networks, as well as access to health care. Addressing these factors of health is important for improving health and reducing longstanding disparities in health and health care.
Research has shown that addressing both clinical and nonclinical factors of health is an important step in promoting health for everyone. Research further reveals that geography is a better predictor of an individual’s health than is their genetic code. Data derived from exploreMOhealth.org — a platform designed to assist community health stakeholders assess the health of their communities — depicts that disparities in health are evident between ZIP codes separated only by a few miles. Minority groups often are more affected by health disparities than dominant groups.
A scan of the current policy and care delivery landscape alludes to myriad direct and indirect benefits for providers that systematically screen for and capture ICD-10 Z codes for SDOH on uniform billing and claims records. To improve the consistent use of the codes at Missouri hospitals, this study explores both patient and provider characteristics that contribute to the likelihood of identification and capture of ICD-10 SDOH Z codes during an inpatient hospitalization or emergency department visit.
Throughout a decade, SDOH have been increasingly recognized as a factor in delivery of, and payment for, patient-centered care. During this time, clinicians and community stakeholders have worked to understand the scope and influence of SDOH. However, as the nation’s health care system incorporated SDOH in care improvement strategies, clear definitions and a reliable measurement system with widely available data have been elusive. This is beginning to change.
CDC Programs to Address SDOH
- Built Environment and Health Initiative: Designing and Building Healthy Places
- The National Program to Eliminate Diabetes-Related Disparities in Vulnerable Populations
- Partnerships to Improve Community Health (PICH)
- Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH)
- State-Level Implementation of the Essentials for Childhood Framework
- STRYVE: Striving To Reduce Youth Violence Everywhere
Sources For Data on SDOH
Level of data: state, county, zip code
Chronic Disease Indicators
Level of data: state, territory, select large metropolitan areas
Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke
Level of data: national, state, territory, county
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Atlas
Level of data: national, state, select territories
National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network
Level of data: national, state, county
The Social Vulnerability Index
Level of data: census tract
Vulnerable Populations Footprint
Level of data: state, county, city, census tract
Contact An Expert
The exploreMOhealth website is one of the most unique health-related datasets in the country, offering both county- and ZIP code-level data. Data is the key to diagnosing and addressing some of our region’s most pressing health issues, and by making this information available to the public, both organizations are furthering their missions to improve health and the health care system.